Backwoods Solar Employee System by Tom Kingsland

My Story

I purchased 21 acres of forested property on a hilltop near Sandpoint Idaho in the fall of 1988. It was affordable for me because it didn’t have a road or any improvements and utilities were over a ½ mile away. There was a logging skidder “road” which required 4 wheel drive in the summer, but as soon as there was snow it was a hike in. Private and quiet!

In 1992 I was gifted a small beat up camper that we dragged up the road to a spot that could potentially be a house site. We would go out on the weekends to get away from the noise of town and we dreamed of building a small weekend cabin to make a more year round get away. Resources were very limited so we made due with the camper until a black bear decided that what was inside the camper smelled good and he took the wall off to get to the treats hidden inside. Dang, no more camper!

In 1995 we found an old bridge across the Kootenai River near the Montana-Idaho border that was no longer in use and falling apart. It had some timbers that we salvaged which were still in decent shape that we could carry by hand to a borrowed flatbed truck. A plan for a small weekend cabin took shape and over the next couple summers we built a 16′ X 24′ structure with a loft to have a warm snug place to stay. We had access to a small VW engine powered, 8KW, homemade generator that we used to power saws but noise was obnoxious and it mostly sat unused. We got a quote from the local utility to bring power up and were stunned that they wanted $20,000 ballpark unless they ran into obstacles then it would cost even more! Electricity seemed like more of a hassle than it was worth. We built a small half underground room out of concrete blocks to shelter tools and the generator. That building later became the “power room” where we installed the batteries and inverter. It never freezes inside that room without a heat source even though we get sub-zero winter weather almost every year. Life was good!

In 1996 we were still living in town which was miserable for me having been raised in the country on a farm and liking the solitude of country life. We had a weekend getaway around new years of 1997 and on September 13th we had our daughter Erika Sen! My dream of living on the property seemed further away than ever but the joy of being a dad was very inspiring and uplifting. Over the next couple years we added onto the cabin to have a small bedroom and a bathroom. We had trees that we felled to make room for the place milled into lumber on-site with a portable Wood-Mizer bandsaw. We became our own lumberyard! Having had some backhoe experience, I rented a large excavator for a couple weeks to improve the road, install a septic system and generally re-arrange the whole area. Stumps were removed, a garden site was created, and two 1400 gallon concrete cisterns were buried for water storage. I had a 500 gallon water tank on my truck that I used to haul water to the cisterns. I excavated a space for an underground greenhouse that I built out of concrete blocks with a poured concrete ceiling then back filled with earth over the top. Getting a head start on the short growing season in northern Idaho is essential to getting a decent harvest. I use a solar direct greenhouse fan powered by an old Siemens 55 watt solar panel which has worked wonderfully over the years. Part of the greenhouse is buried and in the back is a root cellar for potato and cabbage storage. That room stays cool in the summer and warm in the winter without any outside source of heat or cooling. The whole greenhouse never freezes and we move things like rosemary inside for the winters…the smell of the rosemary in February is wonderful and that whole space is a great retreat in the winter!

An Off-Grid Future 

In the winter of 1998 I was riding a ski lift with Backwoods employee John O’Hara. He convinced me that a small off grid solar electric system would help us enjoy the cabin more and since our needs were minimal the cost would fit our budget. As I began to research the idea of being off grid, I quickly realized that Backwoods wasn’t the least expensive place to buy gear but the help and support I got there really made a difference and gave me the confidence to proceed with my plans. They spent time helping me design and understand things that I just didn’t get anywhere else. I knew that I needed most of the conveniences of town life if I was going to convince my family to move to the country with me.

By June of 1999 we set up a small system that consisted of eight Solarex 77 watt panels on a pole mount, C-40 charge controller, twelve T-105 golf cart batteries and a Trace 4024 inverter. The Trimetric meter informed us that we could run lights, stereo and a small Dankoff booster pump for water pressure from the cistern and life got better! We installed a small rented propane tank and could cook on the Peerless Premier range we bought from Backwoods and use the Paloma tankless water heater as well. We bought a used Servel propane fridge. Having a true sine wave inverter meant that we could use a modern front load washing machine and stacked LP clothes dryer purchased at the local Sears store. We harvest trees that need to be culled from the property for firewood and that is our main heat source. We had all the conveniences we needed and a plan for moving to the country full time began to materialize. Summer of 2000 we moved in! We rented out our house in town and took out an equity loan at a bank. They didn’t like the non-standard building but agreed that we had equity to borrow against so more money became available greasing the wheels of progress.

By 2002 hauling water was getting old fast and even a small garden took a surprising amount of water. We borrowed more money and had a 440′ well drilled into solid granite and got 2.5 gallons per minute. Not much, but doing the math I realized 2.5 GPM times 1440 minutes in a day meant that we potentially had 3600 gallons per day available IF we could pump it all to the cisterns! We installed by hand power a 24 volt Lorentz helical rotor submersible pump that pumped less than 1GPM but only used about 100 watts to power. I used a timer to turn it on for 4 hours per day every day year round. No more hauling water! In 2003 we had a lightning strike right in the yard. The SW4024 inverter, C-40, Trimetric, generator and two solar panels were destroyed.  Luckily we had standard homeowners insurance on personal belongings and a claim was approved. Whew! I installed new gear and life went on. I updated the grounding for the system and installed lightning arrestor’s everywhere!

A New Career

In June of 2004 I was OVER working for the local ski hill where I had worked for 20 years seasonally. I was offered a job at Backwoods Solar by Scott Gentleman since I had actual hands on experience to share with their customers. Backwoods was founded and owned at that point by Steve and Elizabeth Willey who are Quakers. From what I could tell they seemed to really treat their employees fairly and the whole vibe at Backwoods seemed to be a contrast to what I had experienced working for a corporation running the local ski hill. I took a chance, gave notice at my old job and accepted Scott’s generous offer. Backwoods Solar encourages their employees to actually use the gear that they sell, so I very quickly upgraded to six more Solarex 120 watt panels on a second pole mount with a second C-40 charge controller. Now the generator stayed off more and the sun did the job of charging the batteries more frequently. I was doing lots of sales and support for Outback inverters and charge controllers. Being a hands-on learner rather than a book learner I needed to use and operate Outback gear to fully understand it. I sold my used C-40’s, SW inverter and all the Solarex panels and bought parts to assemble an Outback Flex 500 with dual VFX 3524 inverters and an MX 60 charge controller. I bought twelve SolarWorld 175 watt panels and installed a new pole mount further from the batteries where there was more sun available since I could run solar panels in series which meant that the copper wire from the array to the charge controller was reasonably small and affordable. Now we could run more things without the generator being needed which helped us with our goal of being less reliant on propane for the generator.

By spring of 2006 the T-105 batteries were getting tired and were now too small for our increased use as well. I purchased twelve, 2 volt, 1766ah Surrette industrial batteries that are still what we use today. At 11.5 years old they are still going strong. I would consider getting another set when the eventually wear out. We like to have at least 5 days of autonomy to try to span the time between winter storms without generator use so a large battery bank is appreciated. We purchased a Sundanzer F-225 freezer that runs on the 24 volt battery. It’s large enough for all the huckleberries we can pick and other produce from the garden or meat when we get that.

In 2007 we bought a Kohler 10ERG 10KW generator that Backwoods offered at the time and hooked the propane line to it. It’s 350′ away from the house, over a hill and in an underground concrete block building facing away from our house. #2 copper wire was buried for transmission to the inverters. It cannot be heard from the house and the only way I know it’s even running is by looking at the Trimetric battery meter! It can be started from the house or auto started if needed when the batteries get low in the winter. No more trekking out into a snowstorm to turn the genny on or later in the evening when the batteries are charged and I’ve fallen asleep on the couch watching a movie to go turn it off! We generally only use it in the winter when sun is scarce here in North Idaho and usually use it less than 200 hours total per year. I expect to get over 8000 hours of use before I rebuild it or do any serious maintenance. That means it might be the last generator I ever need to purchase!

(Tom’s property on the 2008 Backwoods Solar catalog cover)

In 2008 we needed more water for the now larger garden, young fruit trees and grass so we had a second well drilled. It is only 225′ deep but is over 800′ from the batteries. I installed a Grundfos SQ Flex pump and ran a 240 volt line from the inverters to the pump. I use a timer to turn in on when we have extra power in the afternoons and we now have plenty of water for all our uses.

In 2009 we installed eight more SolarWorld panels on a third pole mount over 175′ from the batteries. We now had over 3400 watts of solar panels collecting sunshine. That meant we could run pretty much whatever we want including my small wire feed welder, 2HP air compressor and other shop tools. The biggest improvement to our lifestyle that more solar panels brought was a 20 CF Energy Star rated refrigerator. Less propane use and a bigger fridge is nice! It has an automatic ice maker and auto defrost. We like those features a bunch. It seems pretty decadent for off grid living but works great.

In 2012, I destroyed the Dankoff booster pump by running it dry accidentally (it had already survived being frozen once and several times when I hadn’t changed the filter soon enough it had been starved of water and did cavitate somewhat). The pump head was replaced with a new one and I did replace the brushes in the motor since they were about half worn out. That pump was used hard! It had run for hours and hours when I was watering the garden without problems other than filter changes but running dry was a deal breaker for the pump. Luckily parts are readily available and replacing the pump head was not hard at all. We continued to use the repaired pump for some time but we really wanted more GPM (gallons per minute) when we were watering and had several sprinklers going or soaker hoses being used. My solution was to retire the trusty booster pump to keep as a spare if needed in the future and install a Grundfos 10 SQ submersible pump inside the cistern. It does 10 GPM at 60 PSI and the sprinkler action picked up. We could now run multiple watering devices without much pressure drop. For example, I could shower while I had sprinklers going and not feel like the shower was weak. The pump does use more power than the 24 volt booster pump, but the upgrades to the power system easily kept up with the increased use.

By 2013 we were tired of renting a propane tank from the local LP supplier. They would only let us rent a 320 gallon tank which actually only holds just 250 gallons of LP. That meant that we had to fill twice per year and not always when the price was low or when the road was accessible to the large LP delivery truck. The threat of running out of LP before the spring mud season on the roads was over was more stress that we like to have. LP prices go up and down somewhat seasonally and we discovered that the price is even better if you own your own tank. We purchased a used 1000 gallon LP tank so we can now go two years between fills and we are able to shop for best price (usually in late summer). We currently use less than 400 gallons of LP per year and spend about $50 per month average. Not bad considering we cook, heat water, and run the generator on LP! I think LP tanks are ugly, and ours sits beyond the generator a long ways from the house. When we bought the used tank, I was able to do a camo paint job and installed it in such a way that it really isn’t visible anywhere on the property unless you know where to look.

In 2016 the Original Lorentz water pump that had run 4 hours per day every day since 2002 was worn out. We pulled the pump by hand and installed a new Grundfos SQ Flex pump, again by hand. It uses the same timer system and works great. Having two wells is actually nice since there is some redundancy and lots of water is available for garden, grass, fruit trees and household use. If I were to start fresh with system design today I would make my system 48 volts since 3400 watts of solar panels is a lot to process with a 24 volt battery system. I’m not disappointed that I still use a 24 volt system but I could avoid the multiple charge controllers I use at 24 volts if I used 48 volts. The whole system works wonderfully and I have no real regrets. Even though my gear is now older than what is currently available it works great and I have no reason to change it.

The Freedom to Dream

Having the freedom to build what I want over the years without a bank having any say in what we created, living off grid and working at Backwoods Solar has been life changing for me. We don’t have any neighbors beyond us since utility power is still ½ mile away from us and further for property owners behind us. If I had spent the $20,000 that the local utility wanted to install their lines, I would have made it more attractive for property owners behind us to build and then I would have less privacy and more neighbors using my road. Our lifestyle is truly life with style. We love living off grid and the awareness of energy use it has brought to our family; the abundance of summer and the scarcity of winter and feeling independent of day to day needs for outside energy being supplied by a utility. We may add more solar panels in the future and my dream would be to make hydrogen with all the extra power available in the summer, to store and use with a fuel cell in the winter instead of the LP generator. The dream continues!

 

Backwoods Summer 2016 Road Trip Report I

OSEIA 2016

By Erika Karnitz VP of Wholesale

I attended the 2016 Oregon Solar Energy Conference (OSEC) on May 4th and 5th in Portland Oregon. The conference drew 380 attendees this year, as opposed to last year’s 251. Each day was chock full of training’s, policy round tables, and networking opportunities.

Tuesday May 3rd kicked off the event with a “solar soiree” in the evening featuring drinks, snacks and a chance to say hi to everyone before we got down to business. Jeff Bissonnette, Executive Director of OSEIA gave an opening speech about the bright future of solar in Oregon.

Wednesday morning started with a keynote address by Rhone Resch, President and CEO of the national Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA). He took a poll of the room and it was interesting to see that many of us had Customer Owned Utility round tablebeen there 5, 10, 15, and even 20+ years. He talked about Oregon Senate Bill 1547, which set as 50% renewable portfolio standard (RPS) by 2040 and requires the elimination of coal-generated electricity in the state power mix.  The bill also creates a community solar program, allowing Oregonians without solar suitable roofs to own a portion of a larger central array and have credits applied to their electricity bills. SEIA expects Oregon have one of the fastest growing solar industries in the country in the coming years.

Wednesday I attended some interesting training’s. The first was a product and technical training by Solarworld. They talked about their new line of high efficiency monocrystalline modules, which are 60 cell and 300W. They are using a 5 busbar technology, which in conjunction with high quality mono cells is enabling them to reach 300W in the same footprint as they have used in the past. Per Solarworld ” By moving from three to five bus bars, the primary electrical contacts that stripe photovoltaic cells, SolarWorld can manufacture cells and modules in which electrons travel shorter distances from grid lines to bus bars and thus enable more to reach the bus bars. The advance lifts module power by 2 percentOB training Sandraage points. “

Another interesting new product being offered by Solarworld is the “Bisun” module, which is a bifacial solar module. Bifacials have been offered in the past by companies such as Canadian Solar and Sanyo, but the Solarworld will be the only one currently in production to my knowledge. The amount of additional power generated by bifacials depends greatly on the reflectivity of the surface that they are installed on and the method of install. An ideal install would be elevated and on a white membrane roof. Solarworld claims up to a 25% increase in power generation compared to a standard module of the same wattage. They are currently testing outputs at an install in VA.

The next training I attended was “Inverter Best Practices”, taught by Jeff Laughy from Solar Edge. It was a good overview of different inverter types, with a focus on SolarEdge inverters and optimizers. He discussed the significant impact recovery from shading that is possible by using MLPE (module level power electronics). Rhone ReschMLPEs include microinverters and power optimizers. Tests have indicated that if you are in an area that receives shading, you can recover 25% of the lost power by using MLPEs. According to SolarEdge, 60% of residential installs are currently using MLPE technology.

Jeff also spoke about SolarEdge’s partnership with Tesla in making a storage solution for grid tied systems. The StorEdge 7.6kW inverter and appropriate optimizers can be used with the Tesla Powerwall to create a grid tied solar system with a 6.4kW storage capacity.

The last session I attended on Wednesday was “Preparing for Disaster Resiliency”. Rick Williams, Director of the Columbia Region Leidos Maritime Solutions, has been working with Portland State University and others to come up with solutions to make the PV installs in the area more ready in the case of a large grid outage. They have been discussing establishing community centers that would allow residents to shelter in place.

Thursday I attended the “Grid Tied Battery Backup Systems” class, taught by Sandra Herrera and Brian Lawrence from Outback. We learned a lot about Radian system design and implementation. We also talked about the other products in Outback’s lineup that are suitable for grid tie with battery backup.

The 2016 OSEC was a whirlwind of learning, networking, and fun. There were several after-hours opportunities to mingle with other solar professionals, and it is always a pleasure to see the faces of my northwest solar friends. OSEC remains one of my favorite conferences because of its smaller size and ample training opportunities. See you there next year!